The deep population history of Northeast Asia from the Late Pleistocene to the Holocene
Northeast Asia was inhabited by modern humans as early as 40 thousand years ago (ka), as demonstrated by the genomic study of the Tianyuan man. Using genome-wide data obtained from 25 individuals dated to 33.6-3.4 ka from the Amur Region, we demonstrate that Tianyuan-related ancestry was widespread in Northeast Asia before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). At the close of the LGM stadial, the earliest Coastal North Chinese appeared in the Amur Region, and this population is basal to published ancient Northeast Asians. Human populations in the Amur Region have maintained genetic continuity from 14 ka and these early inhabitants represent the closest East Asian source known for the Ancient Paleo-Siberians. We also observed that EDAR V370A was likely to have been elevated to high frequency after the LGM, suggesting a possible timing for its selection. This study is the first look at the deep population dynamics of Northeast Asia.