Saccharum officinarum


Sugarcane, a herbaceous plant in the family Gramineae, is widely cultivated in temperate and tropical regions. Sugarcane is the main cash crop of tropical sugar producing countries all over the world, especially one of the economic pillars of Southeast Asia Pacific island countries and Oceania islands. In China, sugarcane is the main raw material for sugar production and also an important raw material for light industry, chemical industry and energy.

Geographical Distribution

Sugarcane probably originated in New Guinea or India, and later spread to the South Pacific Islands. It was introduced into southern China around the time of King Xuan of Zhou Dynasty. Around the 10th and the 13th century (which was Song Dynasty), sugarcane was widely planted in provinces south of the Yangtze River.

Sugarcane is produced in more than 100 countries worldwide, the largest producers being Brazil, India and China. Other countries with large cultivation areas include Cuba, Thailand, Mexico, Australia and the United States. Sugarcane production areas in China are mainly located in the southern tropical regions of Guangxi (which produces 60% of the country's sugar cane), Guangdong, Taiwan and Fujian.


  • Edible: Sugarcane is rich in sugar and water, and it also contains various vitamins, fats, proteins, organic acids, calcium, iron and other substances beneficial to human metabolism.
  • Health care: Sugarcane is sweet in taste and cold in nature. It has the effects of clearing heat and detoxifying the body, relieving thirst and stopping nausea in the stomach.
  • Industrial raw materials: Sugarcane stalks are important raw materials for sugar production. The juice in the stalks contains sucrose 12%-15%, reducing sugar, starch, pectin and fat about 4%, and the fibre content of bagasse about 12%.It has high sugar yield in good quality with less fibre or impurity. In addition to a good feed for livestock such as cattle and sheep, the culm tips and leaves can also be used for medicine, making ethanol for alternative energy source, raising yeast, using as building materials and so on.


1.中国科学院中国植物志委员会. 中国植物志.第10卷[M]. 科学出版社, 1980.

Data Statistics
Taxonomy ID 4547
Projects -
Samples -
Genomes 2
Variations -
Reference GWHBEII00000000
Genes 117757
Cultivars -
Publications 9199