a catalog of biological databases
|Description:||Ensembl is a genome browser for vertebrate genomes that supports research in comparative genomics, evolution, sequence variation and transcriptional regulation. Ensembl annotate genes, computes multiple alignments, predicts regulatory function and collects disease data. Ensembl tools include BLAST, BLAT, BioMart and the Variant Effect Predictor (VEP) for all supported species.|
|University/Institution:||European Bioinformatics Institute|
|Address:||Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK|
|Contact name (PI/Team):||Paul Flicek|
|Contact email (PI/Helpdesk):||firstname.lastname@example.org|
Ensembl 2020. [PMID: 31691826]
The Ensembl (https://www.ensembl.org) is a system for generating and distributing genome annotation such as genes, variation, regulation and comparative genomics across the vertebrate subphylum and key model organisms. The Ensembl annotation pipeline is capable of integrating experimental and reference data from multiple providers into a single integrated resource. Here, we present 94 newly annotated and re-annotated genomes, bringing the total number of genomes offered by Ensembl to 227. This represents the single largest expansion of the resource since its inception. We also detail our continued efforts to improve human annotation, developments in our epigenome analysis and display, a new tool for imputing causal genes from genome-wide association studies and visualisation of variation within a 3D protein model. Finally, we present information on our new website. Both software and data are made available without restriction via our website, online tools platform and programmatic interfaces (available under an Apache 2.0 license) and data updates made available four times a year.
Ensembl 2019. [PMID: 30407521]
The Ensembl project (https://www.ensembl.org) makes key genomic data sets available to the entire scientific community without restrictions. Ensembl seeks to be a fundamental resource driving scientific progress by creating, maintaining and updating reference genome annotation and comparative genomics resources. This year we describe our new and expanded gene, variant and comparative annotation capabilities, which led to a 50% increase in the number of vertebrate genomes we support. We have also doubled the number of available human variants and added regulatory regions for many mouse cell types and developmental stages. Our data sets and tools are available via the Ensembl website as well as a through a RESTful webservice, Perl application programming interface and as data files for download.
Ensembl 2018. [PMID: 29155950]
The Ensembl project has been aggregating, processing, integrating and redistributing genomic datasets since the initial releases of the draft human genome, with the aim of accelerating genomics research through rapid open distribution of public data. Large amounts of raw data are thus transformed into knowledge, which is made available via a multitude of channels, in particular our browser (http://www.ensembl.org). Over time, we have expanded in multiple directions. First, our resources describe multiple fields of genomics, in particular gene annotation, comparative genomics, genetics and epigenomics. Second, we cover a growing number of genome assemblies; Ensembl Release 90 contains exactly 100. Third, our databases feed simultaneously into an array of services designed around different use cases, ranging from quick browsing to genome-wide bioinformatic analysis. We present here the latest developments of the Ensembl project, with a focus on managing an increasing number of assemblies, supporting efforts in genome interpretation and improving our browser.
Ensembl 2017. [PMID: 27899575]
Ensembl (www.ensembl.org) is a database and genome browser for enabling research on vertebrate genomes. We import, analyse, curate and integrate a diverse collection of large-scale reference data to create a more comprehensive view of genome biology than would be possible from any individual dataset. Our extensive data resources include evidence-based gene and regulatory region annotation, genome variation and gene trees. An accompanying suite of tools, infrastructure and programmatic access methods ensure uniform data analysis and distribution for all supported species. Together, these provide a comprehensive solution for large-scale and targeted genomics applications alike. Among many other developments over the past year, we have improved our resources for gene regulation and comparative genomics, and added CRISPR/Cas9 target sites. We released new browser functionality and tools, including improved filtering and prioritization of genome variation, Manhattan plot visualization for linkage disequilibrium and eQTL data, and an ontology search for phenotypes, traits and disease. We have also enhanced data discovery and access with a track hub registry and a selection of new REST end points. All Ensembl data are freely released to the scientific community and our source code is available via the open source Apache 2.0 license. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Ensembl 2016. [PMID: 26687719]
The Ensembl project (http://www.ensembl.org) is a system for genome annotation, analysis, storage and dissemination designed to facilitate the access of genomic annotation from chordates and key model organisms. It provides access to data from 87 species across our main and early access Pre! websites. This year we introduced three newly annotated species and released numerous updates across our supported species with a concentration on data for the latest genome assemblies of human, mouse, zebrafish and rat. We also provided two data updates for the previous human assembly, GRCh37, through a dedicated website (http://grch37.ensembl.org). Our tools, in particular the VEP, have been improved significantly through integration of additional third party data. REST is now capable of larger-scale analysis and our regulatory data BioMart can deliver faster results. The website is now capable of displaying long-range interactions such as those found in cis-regulated datasets. Finally we have launched a website optimized for mobile devices providing views of genes, variants and phenotypes. Our data is made available without restriction and all code is available from our GitHub organization site (http://github.com/Ensembl) under an Apache 2.0 license. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Ensembl regulation resources. [PMID: 26888907]
New experimental techniques in epigenomics allow researchers to assay a diversity of highly dynamic features such as histone marks, DNA modifications or chromatin structure. The study of their fluctuations should provide insights into gene expression regulation, cell differentiation and disease. The Ensembl project collects and maintains the Ensembl regulation data resources on epigenetic marks, transcription factor binding and DNA methylation for human and mouse, as well as microarray probe mappings and annotations for a variety of chordate genomes. From this data, we produce a functional annotation of the regulatory elements along the human and mouse genomes with plans to expand to other species as data becomes available. Starting from well-studied cell lines, we will progressively expand our library of measurements to a greater variety of samples. Ensembl's regulation resources provide a central and easy-to-query repository for reference epigenomes. As with all Ensembl data, it is freely available at http://www.ensembl.org, from the Perl and REST APIs and from the public Ensembl MySQL database server at ensembldb.ensembl.org. Database URL: http://www.ensembl.org.
Ensembl 2015. [PMID: 25352552]
Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org) is a genomic interpretation system providing the most up-to-date annotations, querying tools and access methods for chordates and key model organisms. This year we released updated annotation (gene models, comparative genomics, regulatory regions and variation) on the new human assembly, GRCh38, although we continue to support researchers using the GRCh37.p13 assembly through a dedicated site (http://grch37.ensembl.org). Our Regulatory Build has been revamped to identify regulatory regions of interest and to efficiently highlight their activity across disparate epigenetic data sets. A number of new interfaces allow users to perform large-scale comparisons of their data against our annotations. The REST server (http://rest.ensembl.org), which allows programs written in any language to query our databases, has moved to a full service alongside our upgraded website tools. Our online Variant Effect Predictor tool has been updated to process more variants and calculate summary statistics. Lastly, the WiggleTools package enables users to summarize large collections of data sets and view them as single tracks in Ensembl. The Ensembl code base itself is more accessible: it is now hosted on our GitHub organization page (https://github.com/Ensembl) under an Apache 2.0 open source license. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Ensembl 2014. [PMID: 24316576]
Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org) creates tools and data resources to facilitate genomic analysis in chordate species with an emphasis on human, major vertebrate model organisms and farm animals. Over the past year we have increased the number of species that we support to 77 and expanded our genome browser with a new scrollable overview and improved variation and phenotype views. We also report updates to our core datasets and improvements to our gene homology relationships from the addition of new species. Our REST service has been extended with additional support for comparative genomics and ontology information. Finally, we provide updated information about our methods for data access and resources for user training.
Ensembl 2013. [PMID: 23203987]
The Ensembl project (http://www.ensembl.org) provides genome information for sequenced chordate genomes with a particular focus on human, mouse, zebrafish and rat. Our resources include evidenced-based gene sets for all supported species; large-scale whole genome multiple species alignments across vertebrates and clade-specific alignments for eutherian mammals, primates, birds and fish; variation data resources for 17 species and regulation annotations based on ENCODE and other data sets. Ensembl data are accessible through the genome browser at http://www.ensembl.org and through other tools and programmatic interfaces.
Ensembl 2012. [PMID: 22086963]
The Ensembl project (http://www.ensembl.org) provides genome resources for chordate genomes with a particular focus on human genome data as well as data for key model organisms such as mouse, rat and zebrafish. Five additional species were added in the last year including gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys) and Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) bringing the total number of supported species to 61 as of Ensembl release 64 (September 2011). Of these, 55 species appear on the main Ensembl website and six species are provided on the Ensembl preview site (Pre!Ensembl; http://pre.ensembl.org) with preliminary support. The past year has also seen improvements across the project.
Ensembl 2011. [PMID: 21045057]
The Ensembl project (http://www.ensembl.org) seeks to enable genomic science by providing high quality, integrated annotation on chordate and selected eukaryotic genomes within a consistent and accessible infrastructure. All supported species include comprehensive, evidence-based gene annotations and a selected set of genomes includes additional data focused on variation, comparative, evolutionary, functional and regulatory annotation. The most advanced resources are provided for key species including human, mouse, rat and zebrafish reflecting the popularity and importance of these species in biomedical research. As of Ensembl release 59 (August 2010), 56 species are supported of which 5 have been added in the past year. Since our previous report, we have substantially improved the presentation and integration of both data of disease relevance and the regulatory state of different cell types.
Ensembl's 10th year. [PMID: 19906699]
Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org) integrates genomic information for a comprehensive set of chordate genomes with a particular focus on resources for human, mouse, rat, zebrafish and other high-value sequenced genomes. We provide complete gene annotations for all supported species in addition to specific resources that target genome variation, function and evolution. Ensembl data is accessible in a variety of formats including via our genome browser, API and BioMart. This year marks the tenth anniversary of Ensembl and in that time the project has grown with advances in genome technology. As of release 56 (September 2009), Ensembl supports 51 species including marmoset, pig, zebra finch, lizard, gorilla and wallaby, which were added in the past year. Major additions and improvements to Ensembl since our previous report include the incorporation of the human GRCh37 assembly, enhanced visualisation and data-mining options for the Ensembl regulatory features and continued development of our software infrastructure.
A database and API for variation, dense genotyping and resequencing data. [PMID: 20459810]
BACKGROUND: Advances in sequencing and genotyping technologies are leading to the widespread availability of multi-species variation data, dense genotype data and large-scale resequencing projects. The 1000 Genomes Project and similar efforts in other species are challenging the methods previously used for storage and manipulation of such data necessitating the redesign of existing genome-wide bioinformatics resources.
Ensembl variation resources. [PMID: 20459805]
BACKGROUND: The maturing field of genomics is rapidly increasing the number of sequenced genomes and producing more information from those previously sequenced. Much of this additional information is variation data derived from sampling multiple individuals of a given species with the goal of discovering new variants and characterising the population frequencies of the variants that are already known. These data have immense value for many studies, including those designed to understand evolution and connect genotype to phenotype. Maximising the utility of the data requires that it be stored in an accessible manner that facilitates the integration of variation data with other genome resources such as gene annotation and comparative genomics.
Touring Ensembl: a practical guide to genome browsing. [PMID: 20459808]
The number of databases in molecular biological fields has rapidly increased to provide a large-scale resource. Though valuable information is available, data can be difficult to access, compare and integrate due to different formats and presentations of web interfaces. This paper offers a practical guide to the integration of gene, comparative genomic, and functional genomics data using the Ensembl website at http://www.ensembl.org.The Ensembl genome browser and underlying databases focus on chordate organisms. More species such as plants and microorganisms can be investigated using our sister browser at http://www.ensemblgenomes.org.In this study, four examples are used that sample many pages and features of the Ensembl browser. We focus on comparative studies across over 50 mostly chordate organisms, variations linked to disease, functional genomics, and access of external information housed in databases outside the Ensembl project. Researchers will learn how to go beyond simply exporting one gene sequence, and explore how a genome browser can integrate data from various sources and databases to build a full and comprehensive biological picture.
Ensembl 2009. [PMID: 19033362]
The Ensembl project (http://www.ensembl.org) is a comprehensive genome information system featuring an integrated set of genome annotation, databases, and other information for chordate, selected model organism and disease vector genomes. As of release 51 (November 2008), Ensembl fully supports 45 species, and three additional species have preliminary support. New species in the past year include orangutan and six additional low coverage mammalian genomes. Major additions and improvements to Ensembl since our previous report include a major redesign of our website; generation of multiple genome alignments and ancestral sequences using the new Enredo-Pecan-Ortheus pipeline and development of our software infrastructure, particularly to support the Ensembl Genomes project (http://www.ensemblgenomes.org/).
Ensembl 2008. [PMID: 18000006]
The Ensembl project (http://www.ensembl.org) is a comprehensive genome information system featuring an integrated set of genome annotation, databases and other information for chordate and selected model organism and disease vector genomes. As of release 47 (October 2007), Ensembl fully supports 35 species, with preliminary support for six additional species. New species in the past year include platypus and horse. Major additions and improvements to Ensembl since our previous report include extensive support for functional genomics data in the form of a specialized functional genomics database, genome-wide maps of protein-DNA interactions and the Ensembl regulatory build; support for customization of the Ensembl web interface through the addition of user accounts and user groups; and increased support for genome resequencing. We have also introduced new comparative genomics-based data mining options and report on the continued development of our software infrastructure.
Ensembl 2007. [PMID: 17148474]
The Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org/) project provides a comprehensive and integrated source of annotation of chordate genome sequences. Over the past year the number of genomes available from Ensembl has increased from 15 to 33, with the addition of sites for the mammalian genomes of elephant, rabbit, armadillo, tenrec, platypus, pig, cat, bush baby, common shrew, microbat and european hedgehog; the fish genomes of stickleback and medaka and the second example of the genomes of the sea squirt (Ciona savignyi) and the mosquito (Aedes aegypti). Some of the major features added during the year include the first complete gene sets for genomes with low-sequence coverage, the introduction of new strain variation data and the introduction of new orthology/paralog annotations based on gene trees.
Ensembl 2006. [PMID: 16381931]
The Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org/) project provides a comprehensive and integrated source of annotation of large genome sequences. Over the last year the number of genomes available from the Ensembl site has increased from 4 to 19, with the addition of the mammalian genomes of Rhesus macaque and Opossum, the chordate genome of Ciona intestinalis and the import and integration of the yeast genome. The year has also seen extensive improvements to both data analysis and presentation, with the introduction of a redesigned website, the addition of RNA gene and regulatory annotation and substantial improvements to the integration of human genome variation data.
Ensembl 2005. [PMID: 15608235]
The Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org/) project provides a comprehensive and integrated source of annotation of large genome sequences. Over the last year the number of genomes available from the Ensembl site has increased by 7 to 16, with the addition of the six vertebrate genomes of chimpanzee, dog, cow, chicken, tetraodon and frog and the insect genome of honeybee. The majority have been annotated automatically using the Ensembl gene build system, showing its flexibility to reliably annotate a wide variety of genomes. With the increased number of vertebrate genomes, the comparative analysis provided to users has been greatly improved, with new website interfaces allowing annotation of different genomes to be directly compared. The Ensembl software system is being increasingly widely reused in different projects showing the benefits of a completely open approach to software development and distribution.
Ensembl 2004. [PMID: 14681459]
The Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org/) database project provides a bioinformatics framework to organize biology around the sequences of large genomes. It is a comprehensive and integrated source of annotation of large genome sequences, available via interactive website, web services or flat files. As well as being one of the leading sources of genome annotation, Ensembl is an open source software engineering project to develop a portable system able to handle very large genomes and associated requirements. The facilities of the system range from sequence analysis to data storage and visualization and installations exist around the world both in companies and at academic sites. With a total of nine genome sequences available from Ensembl and more genomes to follow, recent developments have focused mainly on closer integration between genomes and external data.
The Ensembl Web site: mechanics of a genome browser. [PMID: 15123591]
The Ensembl Web site (http://www.ensembl.org/) is the principal user interface to the data of the Ensembl project, and currently serves >500,000 pages (approximately 2.5 million hits) per week, providing access to >80 GB (gigabyte) of data to users in more than 80 countries. Built atop an open-source platform comprising Apache/mod_perl and the MySQL relational database management system, it is modular, extensible, and freely available. It is being actively reused and extended in several different projects, and has been downloaded and installed in companies and academic institutions worldwide. Here, we describe some of the technical features of the site, with particular reference to its dynamic configuration that enables it to handle disparate data from multiple species.
Ensembl 2002: accommodating comparative genomics. [PMID: 12519943]
The Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org/) database project provides a bioinformatics framework to organise biology around the sequences of large genomes. It is a comprehensive source of stable automatic annotation of human, mouse and other genome sequences, available as either an interactive web site or as flat files. Ensembl also integrates manually annotated gene structures from external sources where available. As well as being one of the leading sources of genome annotation, Ensembl is an open source software engineering project to develop a portable system able to handle very large genomes and associated requirements. These range from sequence analysis to data storage and visualisation and installations exist around the world in both companies and at academic sites. With both human and mouse genome sequences available and more vertebrate sequences to follow, many of the recent developments in Ensembl have focusing on developing automatic comparative genome analysis and visualisation.
The Ensembl genome database project. [PMID: 11752248]
The Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org/) database project provides a bioinformatics framework to organise biology around the sequences of large genomes. It is a comprehensive source of stable automatic annotation of the human genome sequence, with confirmed gene predictions that have been integrated with external data sources, and is available as either an interactive web site or as flat files. It is also an open source software engineering project to develop a portable system able to handle very large genomes and associated requirements from sequence analysis to data storage and visualisation. The Ensembl site is one of the leading sources of human genome sequence annotation and provided much of the analysis for publication by the international human genome project of the draft genome. The Ensembl system is being installed around the world in both companies and academic sites on machines ranging from supercomputers to laptops.