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Database Profile

General information

Full name: Gene Ontology Annotation (UniProt-GOA) Database
Description: Gene Ontology assignments for proteins for all species in UniProtKB.
Year founded: 2011
Last update: 2016-03-16
Real time : Checking...
Country/Region: United Kingdom
Data type:
Data object:
Database category:
Major organism:

Contact information

University/Institution: European Bioinformatics Institute
Address: Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK
City: Hinxton
Province/State: Cambridge
Country/Region: United Kingdom
Contact name (PI/Team): GOA team
Contact email (PI/Helpdesk):


The GOA database: gene Ontology annotation updates for 2015. [PMID: 25378336]
Huntley RP, Sawford T, Mutowo-Meullenet P, Shypitsyna A, Bonilla C, Martin MJ, O'Donovan C.

The Gene Ontology Annotation (GOA) resource ( provides evidence-based Gene Ontology (GO) annotations to proteins in the UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB). Manual annotations provided by UniProt curators are supplemented by manual and automatic annotations from model organism databases and specialist annotation groups. GOA currently supplies 368 million GO annotations to almost 54 million proteins in more than 480,000 taxonomic groups. The resource now provides annotations to five times the number of proteins it did 4 years ago. As a member of the GO Consortium, we adhere to the most up-to-date Consortium-agreed annotation guidelines via the use of quality control checks that ensures that the GOA resource supplies high-quality functional information to proteins from a wide range of species. Annotations from GOA are freely available and are accessible through a powerful web browser as well as a variety of annotation file formats. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2015:43(Database issue) | 214 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-10-23)
Use of Gene Ontology Annotation to understand the peroxisome proteome in humans. [PMID: 23327938]
Mutowo-Meullenet P, Huntley RP, Dimmer EC, Alam-Faruque Y, Sawford T, Jesus Martin M, O'Donovan C, Apweiler R.

The Gene Ontology (GO) is the de facto standard for the functional description of gene products, providing a consistent, information-rich terminology applicable across species and information repositories. The UniProt Consortium uses both manual and automatic GO annotation approaches to curate UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB) entries. The selection of a protein set prioritized for manual annotation has implications for the characteristics of the information provided to users working in a specific field or interested in particular pathways or processes. In this article, we describe an organelle-focused, manual curation initiative targeting proteins from the human peroxisome. We discuss the steps taken to define the peroxisome proteome and the challenges encountered in defining the boundaries of this protein set. We illustrate with the use of examples how GO annotations now capture cell and tissue type information and the advantages that such an annotation approach provides to users. Database URL: and

Database (Oxford). 2013:2013() | 10 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-10-23)
The UniProt-GO Annotation database in 2011. [PMID: 22123736]
Dimmer EC, Huntley RP, Alam-Faruque Y, Sawford T, O'Donovan C, Martin MJ, Bely B, Browne P, Mun Chan W, Eberhardt R, Gardner M, Laiho K, Legge D, Magrane M, Pichler K, Poggioli D, Sehra H, Auchincloss A, Axelsen K, Blatter MC, Boutet E, Braconi-Quintaje S, Breuza L, Bridge A, Coudert E, Estreicher A, Famiglietti L, Ferro-Rojas S, Feuermann M, Gos A, Gruaz-Gumowski N, Hinz U, Hulo C, James J, Jimenez S, Jungo F, Keller G, Lemercier P, Lieberherr D, Masson P, Moinat M, Pedruzzi I, Poux S, Rivoire C, Roechert B, Schneider M, Stutz A, Sundaram S, Tognolli M, Bougueleret L, Argoud-Puy G, Cusin I, Duek-Roggli P, Xenarios I, Apweiler R.

The GO annotation dataset provided by the UniProt Consortium (GOA: is a comprehensive set of evidenced-based associations between terms from the Gene Ontology resource and UniProtKB proteins. Currently supplying over 100 million annotations to 11 million proteins in more than 360,000 taxa, this resource has increased 2-fold over the last 2 years and has benefited from a wealth of checks to improve annotation correctness and consistency as well as now supplying a greater information content enabled by GO Consortium annotation format developments. Detailed, manual GO annotations obtained from the curation of peer-reviewed papers are directly contributed by all UniProt curators and supplemented with manual and electronic annotations from 36 model organism and domain-focused scientific resources. The inclusion of high-quality, automatic annotation predictions ensures the UniProt GO annotation dataset supplies functional information to a wide range of proteins, including those from poorly characterized, non-model organism species. UniProt GO annotations are freely available in a range of formats accessible by both file downloads and web-based views. In addition, the introduction of a new, normalized file format in 2010 has made for easier handling of the complete UniProt-GOA data set.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2012:40(Database issue) | 194 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-10-23)
The GOA database in 2009--an integrated Gene Ontology Annotation resource. [PMID: 18957448]
Barrell D, Dimmer E, Huntley RP, Binns D, O'Donovan C, Apweiler R.

The Gene Ontology Annotation (GOA) project at the EBI ( provides high-quality electronic and manual associations (annotations) of Gene Ontology (GO) terms to UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB) entries. Annotations created by the project are collated with annotations from external databases to provide an extensive, publicly available GO annotation resource. Currently covering over 160 000 taxa, with greater than 32 million annotations, GOA remains the largest and most comprehensive open-source contributor to the GO Consortium (GOC) project. Over the last five years, the group has augmented the number and coverage of their electronic pipelines and a number of new manual annotation projects and collaborations now further enhance this resource. A range of files facilitate the download of annotations for particular species, and GO term information and associated annotations can also be viewed and downloaded from the newly developed GOA QuickGO tool (, which allows users to precisely tailor their annotation set.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2009:37(Database issue) | 332 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-10-23)
The Gene Ontology Annotation (GOA) Database: sharing knowledge in Uniprot with Gene Ontology. [PMID: 14681408]
Camon E, Magrane M, Barrell D, Lee V, Dimmer E, Maslen J, Binns D, Harte N, Lopez R, Apweiler R.

The Gene Ontology Annotation (GOA) database ( aims to provide high-quality electronic and manual annotations to the UniProt Knowledgebase (Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL and PIR-PSD) using the standardized vocabulary of the Gene Ontology (GO). As a supplementary archive of GO annotation, GOA promotes a high level of integration of the knowledge represented in UniProt with other databases. This is achieved by converting UniProt annotation into a recognized computational format. GOA provides annotated entries for nearly 60,000 species (GOA-SPTr) and is the largest and most comprehensive open-source contributor of annotations to the GO Consortium annotation effort. By integrating GO annotations from other model organism groups, GOA consolidates specialized knowledge and expertise to ensure the data remain a key reference for up-to-date biological information. Furthermore, the GOA database fully endorses the Human Proteomics Initiative by prioritizing the annotation of proteins likely to benefit human health and disease. In addition to a non-redundant set of annotations to the human proteome (GOA-Human) and monthly releases of its GO annotation for all species (GOA-SPTr), a series of GO mapping files and specific cross-references in other databases are also regularly distributed. GOA can be queried through a simple user-friendly web interface or downloaded in a parsable format via the EBI and GO FTP websites. The GOA data set can be used to enhance the annotation of particular model organism or gene expression data sets, although increasingly it has been used to evaluate GO predictions generated from text mining or protein interaction experiments. In 2004, the GOA team will build on its success and will continue to supplement the functional annotation of UniProt and work towards enhancing the ability of scientists to access all available biological information. Researchers wishing to query or contribute to the GOA project are encouraged to email:

Nucleic Acids Res. 2004:32(Database issue) | 464 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-10-23)
The Gene Ontology Annotation (GOA) project: implementation of GO in SWISS-PROT, TrEMBL, and InterPro. [PMID: 12654719]
Camon E, Magrane M, Barrell D, Binns D, Fleischmann W, Kersey P, Mulder N, Oinn T, Maslen J, Cox A, Apweiler R.

Gene Ontology Annotation (GOA) is a project run by the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) that aims to provide assignments of terms from the Gene Ontology (GO) resource to gene products in a number of its databases ( In the first stage of this project, GO assignments have been applied to a data set representing the complete human proteome by a combination of electronic mappings and manual curation. This vocabulary has also been applied to the nonredundant proteome sets for all other completely sequenced organisms as well as to proteins from a wide range of organisms where the proteome is not yet complete.

Genome Res. 2003:13(4) | 193 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-10-23)


All databases:
124/5130 (97.602%)
Gene genome and annotation:
50/1366 (96.413%)
Standard ontology and nomenclature:
10/206 (95.631%)
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Record metadata

Created on: 2015-06-20
Curated by:
Lina Ma [2019-04-18]
Lina Ma [2018-06-08]
Zhuang Xiong [2018-02-24]
Dong Zou [2018-02-07]
lin liu [2016-03-26]
Mengwei Li [2016-02-21]
Mengwei Li [2016-02-18]
Jian Sang [2015-12-05]
Jian Sang [2015-06-28]