a catalog of biological databases
|Full name:||Comparative Toxicogenomics Database|
|Description:||CTD is a robust, publicly available database that aims to advance understanding about how environmental exposures affect human health. CTD manually curates the scientific literature for chemical-gene, chemical-disease, gene-disease, chemical-phenotype, and chemical-exposure associations from all species. CTD provides users with a suite of analytical and visualization tools to help generate testable hypotheses.|
environmental exposure chemical biology data chemical-induced disease relation toxicogenomics toxicology resources phenotypes mRNA expression gene annotations chemical-gene interactions chemical-phenotype interactions chemical-disease associations gene-disease associations chemical-protein interactions chemical-mRNA interactions adverse outcome pathways chemical protein gene disease-associated mutations
|University/Institution:||North Carolina State University|
|Contact name (PI/Team):||Allan Peter Davis|
|Contact email (PI/Helpdesk):||email@example.com|
Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD): update 2021. [PMID: 33068428]
The public Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://ctdbase.org/) is an innovative digital ecosystem that relates toxicological information for chemicals, genes, phenotypes, diseases, and exposures to advance understanding about human health. Literature-based, manually curated interactions are integrated to create a knowledgebase that harmonizes cross-species heterogeneous data for chemical exposures and their biological repercussions. In this biennial update, we report a 20% increase in CTD curated content and now provide 45 million toxicogenomic relationships for over 16 300 chemicals, 51 300 genes, 5500 phenotypes, 7200 diseases and 163 000 exposure events, from 600 comparative species. Furthermore, we increase the functionality of chemical-phenotype content with new data-tabs on CTD Disease pages (to help fill in knowledge gaps for environmental health) and new phenotype search parameters (for Batch Query and Venn analysis tools). As well, we introduce new CTD Anatomy pages that allow users to uniquely explore and analyze chemical-phenotype interactions from an anatomical perspective. Finally, we have enhanced CTD Chemical pages with new literature-based chemical synonyms (to improve querying) and added 1600 amino acid-based compounds (to increase chemical landscape). Together, these updates continue to augment CTD as a powerful resource for generating testable hypotheses about the etiologies and molecular mechanisms underlying environmentally influenced diseases.
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database: update 2019. [PMID: 30247620]
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://ctdbase.org/) is a premier public resource for literature-based, manually curated associations between chemicals, gene products, phenotypes, diseases, and environmental exposures. In this biennial update, we present our new chemical-phenotype module that codes chemical-induced effects on phenotypes, curated using controlled vocabularies for chemicals, phenotypes, taxa, and anatomical descriptors; this module provides unique opportunities to explore cellular and system-level phenotypes of the pre-disease state and allows users to construct predictive adverse outcome pathways (linking chemical-gene molecular initiating events with phenotypic key events, diseases, and population-level health outcomes). We also report a 46% increase in CTD manually curated content, which when integrated with other datasets yields more than 38 million toxicogenomic relationships. We describe new querying and display features for our enhanced chemical-exposure science module, providing greater scope of content and utility. As well, we discuss an updated MEDIC disease vocabulary with over 1700 new terms and accession identifiers. To accommodate these increases in data content and functionality, CTD has upgraded its computational infrastructure. These updates continue to improve CTD and help inform new testable hypotheses about the etiology and mechanisms underlying environmentally influenced diseases.
Accessing an Expanded Exposure Science Module at the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. [PMID: 29351546]
SUMMARY: The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://ctdbase.org) is a free resource that provides manually curated information on chemical, gene, phenotype, and disease relationships to advance understanding of the effect of environmental exposures on human health. Four core content areas are independently curated: chemical-gene interactions, chemical-disease and gene-disease associations, chemical-phenotype interactions, and environmental exposure data (e.g., effects of chemical stressors on humans). Since releasing exposure data in 2015, we have vastly increased our coverage of chemicals and disease/phenotype outcomes; greatly expanded access to exposure content; added search capability by stressors, cohorts, population demographics, and measured outcomes; and created user-specified displays of content. These enhancements aim to facilitate human studies by allowing comparisons among experimental parameters and across studies involving specified chemicals, populations, or outcomes. Integration of data among CTD's four content areas and external data sets, such as Gene Ontology annotations and pathway information, links exposure data with over 1.8 million chemical-gene, chemical-disease and gene-disease interactions. Our analysis tools reveal direct and inferred relationships among the data and provide opportunities to generate predictive connections between environmental exposures and population-level health outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2873.
Chemical-Induced Phenotypes at CTD Help Inform the Predisease State and Construct Adverse Outcome Pathways. [PMID: 29846728]
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://ctdbase.org) is a public resource that manually curates the scientific literature to provide content that illuminates the molecular mechanisms by which environmental exposures affect human health. We introduce our new chemical-phenotype module that describes how chemicals can affect molecular, cellular, and physiological phenotypes. At CTD, we operationally distinguish between phenotypes and diseases, wherein a phenotype refers to a nondisease biological event: eg, decreased cell cycle arrest (phenotype) versus liver cancer (disease), increased fat cell proliferation (phenotype) versus morbid obesity (disease), etc. Chemical-phenotype interactions are expressed in a formal structured notation using controlled terms for chemicals, phenotypes, taxon, and anatomical descriptors. Combining this information with CTD's chemical-disease module allows inferences to be made between phenotypes and diseases, yielding potential insight into the predisease state. Integration of all 4 CTD modules furnishes unique opportunities for toxicologists to generate computationally predictive adverse outcome pathways, linking chemical-gene molecular initiating events with phenotypic key events, adverse diseases, and population-level health outcomes. As examples, we present 3 diverse case studies discerning the effect of vehicle emissions on altered leukocyte migration, the role of cadmium in influencing phenotypes preceding Alzheimer disease, and the connection of arsenic-induced glucose metabolic phenotypes with diabetes. To date, CTD contains over 165 000 interactions that connect more than 6400 chemicals to 3900 phenotypes for 760 anatomical terms in 215 species, from over 19 000 scientific articles. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive set of manually curated, literature-based, contextualized, chemical-induced, nondisease phenotype data provided to the public.
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database: update 2017. [PMID: 27651457]
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://ctdbase.org/) provides information about interactions between chemicals and gene products, and their relationships to diseases. Core CTD content (chemical-gene, chemical-disease and gene-disease interactions manually curated from the literature) are integrated with each other as well as with select external datasets to generate expanded networks and predict novel associations. Today, core CTD includes more than 30.5 million toxicogenomic connections relating chemicals/drugs, genes/proteins, diseases, taxa, Gene Ontology (GO) annotations, pathways, and gene interaction modules. In this update, we report a 33% increase in our core data content since 2015, describe our new exposure module (that harmonizes exposure science information with core toxicogenomic data) and introduce a novel dataset of GO-disease inferences (that identify common molecular underpinnings for seemingly unrelated pathologies). These advancements centralize and contextualize real-world chemical exposures with molecular pathways to help scientists generate testable hypotheses in an effort to understand the etiology and mechanisms underlying environmentally influenced diseases. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Generating Gene Ontology-Disease Inferences to Explore Mechanisms of Human Disease at the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. [PMID: 27171405]
Strategies for discovering common molecular events among disparate diseases hold promise for improving understanding of disease etiology and expanding treatment options. One technique is to leverage curated datasets found in the public domain. The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://ctdbase.org/) manually curates chemical-gene, chemical-disease, and gene-disease interactions from the scientific literature. The use of official gene symbols in CTD interactions enables this information to be combined with the Gene Ontology (GO) file from NCBI Gene. By integrating these GO-gene annotations with CTD's gene-disease dataset, we produce 753,000 inferences between 15,700 GO terms and 4,200 diseases, providing opportunities to explore presumptive molecular underpinnings of diseases and identify biological similarities. Through a variety of applications, we demonstrate the utility of this novel resource. As a proof-of-concept, we first analyze known repositioned drugs (e.g., raloxifene and sildenafil) and see that their target diseases have a greater degree of similarity when comparing GO terms vs. genes. Next, a computational analysis predicts seemingly non-intuitive diseases (e.g., stomach ulcers and atherosclerosis) as being similar to bipolar disorder, and these are validated in the literature as reported co-diseases. Additionally, we leverage other CTD content to develop testable hypotheses about thalidomide-gene networks to treat seemingly disparate diseases. Finally, we illustrate how CTD tools can rank a series of drugs as potential candidates for repositioning against B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and predict cisplatin and the small molecule inhibitor JQ1 as lead compounds. The CTD dataset is freely available for users to navigate pathologies within the context of extensive biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular components conferred by GO. This inference set should aid researchers, bioinformaticists, and pharmaceutical drug makers in finding commonalities in disease mechanisms, which in turn could help identify new therapeutics, new indications for existing pharmaceuticals, potential disease comorbidities, and alerts for side effects.
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database's 10th year anniversary: update 2015. [PMID: 25326323]
Ten years ago, the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://ctdbase.org/) was developed out of a need to formalize, harmonize and centralize the information on numerous genes and proteins responding to environmental toxic agents across diverse species. CTD's initial approach was to facilitate comparisons of nucleotide and protein sequences of toxicologically significant genes by curating these sequences and electronically annotating them with chemical terms from their associated references. Since then, however, CTD has vastly expanded its scope to robustly represent a triad of chemical-gene, chemical-disease and gene-disease interactions that are manually curated from the scientific literature by professional biocurators using controlled vocabularies, ontologies and structured notation. Today, CTD includes 24 million toxicogenomic connections relating chemicals/drugs, genes/proteins, diseases, taxa, phenotypes, Gene Ontology annotations, pathways and interaction modules. In this 10th year anniversary update, we outline the evolution of CTD, including our increased data content, new 'Pathway View' visualization tool, enhanced curation practices, pilot chemical-phenotype results and impending exposure data set. The prototype database originally described in our first report has transformed into a sophisticated resource used actively today to help scientists develop and test hypotheses about the etiologies of environmentally influenced diseases. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database: update 2013. [PMID: 23093600]
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://ctdbase.org/) provides information about interactions between environmental chemicals and gene products and their relationships to diseases. Chemical-gene, chemical-disease and gene-disease interactions manually curated from the literature are integrated to generate expanded networks and predict many novel associations between different data types. CTD now contains over 15 million toxicogenomic relationships. To navigate this sea of data, we added several new features, including DiseaseComps (which finds comparable diseases that share toxicogenomic profiles), statistical scoring for inferred gene-disease and pathway-chemical relationships, filtering options for several tools to refine user analysis and our new Gene Set Enricher (which provides biological annotations that are enriched for gene sets). To improve data visualization, we added a Cytoscape Web view to our ChemComps feature, included color-coded interactions and created a 'slim list' for our MEDIC disease vocabulary (allowing diseases to be grouped for meta-analysis, visualization and better data management). CTD continues to promote interoperability with external databases by providing content and cross-links to their sites. Together, this wealth of expanded chemical-gene-disease data, combined with novel ways to analyze and view content, continues to help users generate testable hypotheses about the molecular mechanisms of environmental diseases.
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database: update 2011. [PMID: 20864448]
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) is a public resource that promotes understanding about the interaction of environmental chemicals with gene products, and their effects on human health. Biocurators at CTD manually curate a triad of chemical-gene, chemical-disease and gene-disease relationships from the literature. These core data are then integrated to construct chemical-gene-disease networks and to predict many novel relationships using different types of associated data. Since 2009, we dramatically increased the content of CTD to 1.4 million chemical-gene-disease data points and added many features, statistical analyses and analytical tools, including GeneComps and ChemComps (to find comparable genes and chemicals that share toxicogenomic profiles), enriched Gene Ontology terms associated with chemicals, statistically ranked chemical-disease inferences, Venn diagram tools to discover overlapping and unique attributes of any set of chemicals, genes or disease, and enhanced gene pathway data content, among other features. Together, this wealth of expanded chemical-gene-disease data continues to help users generate testable hypotheses about the molecular mechanisms of environmental diseases. CTD is freely available at http://ctd.mdibl.org.
DiseaseComps: a metric that discovers similar diseases based upon common toxicogenomic profiles at CTD. [PMID: 22125387]
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) is a free resource that describes chemical-gene-disease networks to help understand the effects of environmental exposures on human health. The database contains more than 13,500 chemical-disease and 14,200 gene-disease interactions. In CTD, chemicals and genes are associated with a disease via two types of relationships: as a biomarker or molecular mechanism for the disease (M-type) or as a real or putative therapy for the disease (T-type). We leveraged these curated datasets to compute similarity indices that can be used to produce lists of comparable diseases ("DiseaseComps") based upon shared toxicogenomic profiles. This new metric now classifies diseases with common molecular characteristics, instead of the traditional approach of using histology or tissue of origin to define the disorder. In the dawning era of "personalized medicine", this feature provides a new way to view and describe diseases and will help develop testable hypotheses about chemical-gene-disease networks.
Comparative Toxicogenomics Database: a knowledgebase and discovery tool for chemical-gene-disease networks. [PMID: 18782832]
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) is a curated database that promotes understanding about the effects of environmental chemicals on human health. Biocurators at CTD manually curate chemical-gene interactions, chemical-disease relationships and gene-disease relationships from the literature. This strategy allows data to be integrated to construct chemical-gene-disease networks. CTD is unique in numerous respects: curation focuses on environmental chemicals; interactions are manually curated; interactions are constructed using controlled vocabularies and hierarchies; additional gene attributes (such as Gene Ontology, taxonomy and KEGG pathways) are integrated; data can be viewed from the perspective of a chemical, gene or disease; results and batch queries can be downloaded and saved; and most importantly, CTD acts as both a knowledgebase (by reporting data) and a discovery tool (by generating novel inferences). Over 116,000 interactions between 3900 chemicals and 13,300 genes have been curated from 270 species, and 5900 gene-disease and 2500 chemical-disease direct relationships have been captured. By integrating these data, 350,000 gene-disease relationships and 77,000 chemical-disease relationships can be inferred. This wealth of chemical-gene-disease information yields testable hypotheses for understanding the effects of environmental chemicals on human health. CTD is freely available at http://ctd.mdibl.org.
Text mining and manual curation of chemical-gene-disease networks for the comparative toxicogenomics database (CTD). [PMID: 19814812]
BACKGROUND: The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) is a publicly available resource that promotes understanding about the etiology of environmental diseases. It provides manually curated chemical-gene/protein interactions and chemical- and gene-disease relationships from the peer-reviewed, published literature. The goals of the research reported here were to establish a baseline analysis of current CTD curation, develop a text-mining prototype from readily available open source components, and evaluate its potential value in augmenting curation efficiency and increasing data coverage.
GeneComps and ChemComps: a new CTD metric to identify genes and chemicals with shared toxicogenomic profiles. [PMID: 20198196]
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database is a public resource that promotes understanding about the effects of environmental chemicals on human health. Currently, CTD describes over 184,000 molecular interactions for more than 5,100 chemicals and 16,300 genes/proteins. We have leveraged this dataset of chemical-gene relationships to compute similarity indices following the statistical method of the Jaccard index. These scores are used to produce lists of comparable genes ("GeneComps") or chemicals ("ChemComps") based on shared toxicogenomic profiles. GeneComps and ChemComps are now provided for every curated gene and chemical in CTD. ChemComps are particularly significant because they provide a way to group chemicals based upon their biological effects, instead of their physical or structural properties. These metrics provide a novel way to view and classify genes and chemicals and will help advance testable hypotheses about environmental chemical-genedisease networks.
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database facilitates identification and understanding of chemical-gene-disease associations: arsenic as a case study. [PMID: 18845002]
The etiology of many chronic diseases involves interactions between environmental factors and genes that modulate physiological processes. Understanding interactions between environmental chemicals and genes/proteins may provide insights into the mechanisms of chemical actions, disease susceptibility, toxicity, and therapeutic drug interactions. The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://ctd.mdibl.org) provides these insights by curating and integrating data describing relationships between chemicals, genes/proteins, and human diseases. To illustrate the scope and application of CTD, we present an analysis of curated data for the chemical arsenic. Arsenic represents a major global environmental health threat and is associated with many diseases. The mechanisms by which arsenic modulates these diseases are not well understood. Curated interactions between arsenic compounds and genes were downloaded using export and batch query tools at CTD. The list of genes was analyzed for molecular interactions, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, KEGG pathway annotations, and inferred disease relationships. CTD contains curated data from the published literature describing 2,738 molecular interactions between 21 different arsenic compounds and 1,456 genes and proteins. Analysis of these genes and proteins provide insight into the biological functions and molecular networks that are affected by exposure to arsenic, including stress response, apoptosis, cell cycle, and specific protein signaling pathways. Integrating arsenic-gene data with gene-disease data yields a list of diseases that may be associated with arsenic exposure and genes that may explain this association. CTD data integration and curation strategies yield insight into the actions of environmental chemicals and provide a basis for developing hypotheses about the molecular mechanisms underlying the etiology of environmental diseases. While many reports describe the molecular response to arsenic, CTD integrates these data with additional curated data sets that facilitate construction of chemical-gene-disease networks and provide the groundwork for investigating the molecular basis of arsenic-associated diseases or toxicity. The analysis reported here is extensible to any environmental chemical or therapeutic drug.
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD): a resource for comparative toxicological studies. [PMID: 16902965]
The etiology of most chronic diseases involves interactions between environmental factors and genes that modulate important biological processes (Olden and Wilson, 2000. Nat Rev Genet 1(2):149-153). We are developing the publicly available Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) to promote understanding about the effects of environmental chemicals on human health. CTD identifies interactions between chemicals and genes and facilitates cross-species comparative studies of these genes. The use of diverse animal models and cross-species comparative sequence studies has been critical for understanding basic physiological mechanisms and gene and protein functions. Similarly, these approaches will be valuable for exploring the molecular mechanisms of action of environmental chemicals and the genetic basis of differential susceptibility. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
The comparative toxicogenomics database: a cross-species resource for building chemical-gene interaction networks. [PMID: 16675512]
Chemicals in the environment play a critical role in the etiology of many human diseases. Despite their prevalence, the molecular mechanisms of action and the effects of chemicals on susceptibility to disease are not well understood. To promote understanding of these mechanisms, the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://ctd.mdibl.org/) presents scientifically reviewed and curated information on chemicals, relevant genes and proteins, and their interactions in vertebrates and invertebrates. CTD integrates sequence, reference, species, microarray, and general toxicology information to provide a unique centralized resource for toxicogenomic research. The database also provides visualization capabilities that enable cross-species comparisons of gene and protein sequences. These comparisons will facilitate understanding of structure-function correlations and the genetic basis of susceptibility. Manual curation and integration of cross-species chemical-gene and chemical-protein interactions from the literature are now underway. These data will provide information for building complex interaction networks. New CTD features include (1) cross-species gene, rather than sequence, query and visualization capabilities; (2) integrated cross-links to microarray data from chemicals, genes, and sequences in CTD; (3) a reference set related to chemical-gene and protein interactions identified by an information retrieval system; and (4) a "Chemicals in the News" initiative that provides links from CTD chemicals to environmental health articles from the popular press. Here we describe these new features and our novel cross-species curation of chemical-gene and chemical-protein interactions.
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD). [PMID: 12760826]
The Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory in Salsbury Cove, Maine, USA, is developing the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD), a community-supported genomic resource devoted to genes and proteins of human toxicologic significance. CTD will be the first publicly available database to a) provide annotated associations among genes, proteins, references, and toxic agents, with a focus on annotating data from aquatic and mammalian organisms; b) include nucleotide and protein sequences from diverse species; c) offer a range of analysis tools for customized comparative studies; and d) provide information to investigators on available molecular reagents. This combination of features will facilitate cross-species comparisons of toxicologically significant genes and proteins. These comparisons will promote understanding of molecular evolution, the significance of conserved sequences, the genetic basis of variable sensitivity to environmental agents, and the complex interactions between the environment and human health. CTD is currently under development, and the planned scope and functions of the database are described herein. The intent of this report is to invite community participation in the development of CTD to ensure that it will be a valuable resource for environmental health, molecular biology, and toxicology research.